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Term: Active Directory
ID: 34108
Category: Microsoft Operating Systems
Date Added: 09/02/15
Definition: Active Directory (AD) is a directory service that Microsoft developed for Windows domain networks and is included in most Windows Server operating systems as a set of processes and services.[1][2]

An AD domain controller authenticates and authorizes all the users and computers in a Windows domain type network—assigning and enforcing security policies for all computers and installing or updating software. For example, when a user logs into a computer that is part of a Windows domain, Active Directory checks the submitted password and determines whether the user is a system administrator or normal user.[3]

Active Directory makes use of Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) versions 2 and 3, Microsoft's version of Kerberos, and DNS.

Term: Administrative Distance
ID: 34089
Category: Cisco Systems
Date Added: 09/22/14
Definition: Administrative distance (AD) is an arbitrary numerical value assigned to a routing protocol, a static route or a directly-connected route based on its perceived quality of routing. The administrative distance (AD) value is often used by Cisco routers to determine the "best" route that should be used when multiple paths to the same destination exist. A routing protocol with a lower administrative distance is considered "better" and is given priority over routing protocols with higher administrative distances. The "better" route is selected by the router and is inserted into the router's routing table to be used to route traffic. For example, routes issued by EIGRP are considered more reliable than routes issued by RIP. This is because EIGRP has an administrative distance of 90 while RIP has an administrative distance of 120. The administrative distance (AD) value may be set manually by a network administrator. If a network administrator fails to properly set the administrative distance or configures multiple routing protocols with the same administrative distance, the router will use the default administrative distance.

Term: ajax
ID: 33577
Category: Programming
Date Added: 07/31/14
Definition: Ajax (also AJAX; /ˈeɪdʒæks/; an acronym for Asynchronous JavaScript and XML)[1] is a group of interrelated Web development techniques used on the client-side to create asynchronous Web applications. With Ajax, Web applications can send data to, and retrieve data from, a server asynchronously (in the background) without interfering with the display and behavior of the existing page. Data can be retrieved using the XMLHttpRequest object. Despite the name, the use of XML is not required; JSON is often used instead (see AJAJ), and the requests do not need to be asynchronous.[2]

Ajax is not a single technology, but a group of technologies. HTML and CSS can be used in combination to mark up and style information. The DOM is accessed with JavaScript to dynamically display - and allow the user to interact with - the information presented. JavaScript and the XMLHttpRequest object provide a method for exchanging data asynchronously between browser and server to avoid full page reloads.

Term: array element
ID: 34116
Category: Programming
Date Added: 06/22/16

In computer science, an array data structure, or simply an array, is a data structure consisting of a collection of elements (values or variables), each identified by at least one array index or key. An array is stored so that the position of each element can be computed from its index tuple by a mathematical formula.


Term: face book
ID: 34110
Category: Microsoft Operating Systems
Date Added: 09/02/15
Definition: A face book or Facebook is a printed or web directory found at American universities consisting of individuals’ photographs and names. In particular, it denotes publications of this type distributed by university administrations at the start of the academic year with the intention of helping students get to know each other.

Term: Facebook
ID: 34109
Category: Other
Date Added: 09/02/15
Definition: Facebook is an online social networking service headquartered in Menlo Park, California. Its website was launched on February 4, 2004, by Mark Zuckerberg with his Harvard College roommates and fellow students Eduardo Saverin, Andrew McCollum, Dustin Moskovitz and Chris Hughes. The founders had initially limited the website's membership to Harvard students, but later expanded it to colleges in the Boston area, the Ivy League, and Stanford University. It gradually added support for students at various other universities and later to high-school students. Since 2006, anyone who is at least 13 years old was allowed to become a registered user of the website, though the age requirement may be higher depending on applicable local laws. Its name comes from a colloquialism for the directory given to it by American universities' students.

Term: Neighbor Table
ID: 34101
Category: Cisco Systems
Date Added: 09/24/14
Definition: The neighbor table keeps a record of the IP addresses of routers that have a direct physical connection with this router. Routers that are connected to this router indirectly, through another router are not recorded in this table as they are not considered neighbors.

Term: Nginx
ID: 34107
Category: Linux/Unix
Date Added: 09/02/15
Definition: Nginx (pronounced "engine x") is a web server with a strong focus on high concurrency, performance and low memory usage. It can also act as a reverse proxy server for HTTP, HTTPS, SMTP, POP3, and IMAP protocols, as well as a load balancer and an HTTP cache.

Created by Igor Sysoev in 2002, Nginx runs on Unix, Linux, BSD variants, Mac OS X, Solaris, AIX, HP-UX, and Microsoft Windows.[4] Released under the terms of a BSD-like license, Nginx is free and open source software.

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Term: Password authentication protocol (PAP)
ID: 34105
Category: Cisco Systems
Date Added: 10/22/14
Definition: A password authentication protocol (PAP) is an authentication protocol that uses a password.

PAP is used by Point to Point Protocol to validate users before allowing them access to server resources. Almost all network operating system remote servers support PAP.

PAP transmits unencrypted ASCII passwords over the network and is therefore considered unsecure. It is used as a last resort when the remote server does not support a stronger authentication protocol, like CHAP or EAP (the latter is actually a framework).

Password-based authentication is the protocol where two entities share a password in advance and use the password as the basis of authentication. Existing password authentication schemes can be categorized into two types: weak-password authentication schemes and strong-password authentication schemes. When compared to strong-password schemes, weak-password schemes tend to have lighter computational overhead, the designs are simpler, and implementation is easier, making them especially suitable for some constrained environments.

Term: Protocol-Dependent-Module (PDM)
ID: 34100
Category: Cisco Systems
Date Added: 09/24/14
Definition: Protocol-dependent modules (PDMs) are used by the routing protocol EIGRP to make decisions about adding routes learned from other sources; for example other routers or routing protocols to the routing table. The PDM is also capable of carrying information from the routing table to the topology table. EIGRP offers support for various routed protocols (e.g. Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6), IP, IPX, AppleTalk), and has added support for Service Routing (SAF) PDMs. The only other routing protocol that comes supports multiple network layer protocol is Intermediate System-to-Intermediate System (IS-IS)

"In theory, EIGRP can add PDMs to easily adapt to new or revised routed protocols such as IPv6. Each PDM is responsible for all functions related to its specific routed protocol. The IP-EIGRP module is responsible for the following functions:

1. Send and receive EIGRP packets that bear IP data.
2. Notify DUAL (Diffusing Update Algorithm) of new IP routing information that is received.
3. Maintain the results of DUAL routing decisions in the IP routing table.

Redistribute routing information that was learned by other IP-capable routing protocols."

Term: Split horizon route advertisement
ID: 34091
Category: Cisco Systems
Date Added: 09/24/14
Definition: In computer networking, split-horizon route advertisement is a method of preventing routing loops in distance-vector routing protocols by prohibiting a router from advertising a route back onto the interface from which it was learned. Thus when a device that participates in such route advertisements receives an update from an interface, it (the device) does not forward updates through the same interface out. By doing so, routing loops are prevented.

Term: Topology Table
ID: 34102
Category: Cisco Systems
Date Added: 09/24/14
Definition: The topology table stores routes that it has learned from neighbor routing tables. Unlike a routing table, the topology table does not store all routes, but only routes that have been determined by EIGRP. The topology table also records the metrics for each of the listed EIGRP routes, the feasible successor and the successors. Routes in the topology table are marked as "passive" or "active". Passive indicates that EIGRP has determined the path for the specific route and has finished processing. Active indicates that EIGRP is still trying to calculate the best path for the specific route. Routes in the topology table are not usable by the router until they are inserted into the routing table. The topology table is never used by the router to forward traffic. Routes in the topology table will not be inserted into the routing table if they are active, are a feasible successor, or have a higher administrative distance than an equivalent path.

Term: Twitter
ID: 34111
Category: Other
Date Added: 09/02/15
Definition: Twitter (/ˈtwɪtər/) is an online social networking service that enables users to send and read short 140-character messages called "tweets".

Registered users can read and post tweets, but unregistered users can only read them. Users access Twitter through the website interface, SMS, or mobile device app. Twitter Inc. is based in San Francisco and has more than 25 offices around the world.

Twitter was created in March 2006 by Jack Dorsey, Evan Williams, Biz Stone and Noah Glass and launched by July 2006. The service rapidly gained worldwide popularity, with more than 100 million users who in 2012 posted 340 million tweets per day. The service also handled 1.6 billion search queries per day. In 2013 Twitter was one of the ten most-visited websites, and has been described as "the SMS of the Internet." As of May 2015, Twitter has more than 500 million users, out of which more than 302 million are active users.

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